Composing Processes Into a Static Binary With Nix

Goodbye, docker-compose!

It’s pretty frequent that one wants to use a project that requires multiple processes running. For example, a small web api which uses some database to store data in, or a networking utility which has some monitoring process which can be run alongside it.

In these cases it’s extremely helpful to be able to compose these disparate processes together into a single process. From the user’s perspective it’s much nicer to only have to manage one process (even if it has hidden child processes). From a dev’s perspective the alternatives are: finding libraries in the same language which do the disparate tasks and composing them into the same process via import, or (if such libraries don’t exist, which is likely) rewriting the functionality of all processes into a new, monolithic project which does everything; a huge waste of effort!


A tool I’ve used before for process composition is docker-compose. While it works well for composition, it suffers from the same issues docker in general suffers from: annoying networking quirks, a questionable security model, and the need to run the docker daemon. While these issues are generally surmountable for a developer or sysadmin, they are not suitable for a general-purpose project which will be shipped to average users.


Enter nix-bundle. This tools will take any nix derivation and construct a single static binary out of it, a la AppImage. Combined with a process management tool like circus, nix-bundle becomes a very useful tool for composing processes together!

To demonstrate this, we’ll be looking at putting together a project I wrote called markov, a simple REST API for building markov chains which is written in go and backed by redis.

Step 1: Building Individual Components

Step one is to get markov and its dependencies into a state where it can be run with nix. Doing this is fairly simple, we merely use the buildGoModule function:

pkgs.buildGoModule {
    pname = "markov";
    version = "618b666484566de71f2d59114d011ff4621cf375";
    src = pkgs.fetchFromGitHub {
        owner = "mediocregopher";
        repo = "markov";
        rev = "618b666484566de71f2d59114d011ff4621cf375";
        sha256 = "1sx9dr1q3vr3q8nyx3965x6259iyl85591vx815g1xacygv4i4fg";
    vendorSha256 = "048wygrmv26fsnypsp6vxf89z3j0gs9f1w4i63khx7h134yxhbc6";

This expression results in a derivation which places the markov binary at bin/markov.

The other component we need to run markov is redis, which conveniently is already packaged in nixpkgs as pkg.redis.

Step 2: Composing Using Circus

Circus can be configured to run multiple processes at the same time. It will collect the stdout/stderr logs of these processes and combine them into a single stream, or write them to log files. If any processes fail circus will automatically restart them. It has a simple configuration and is, overall, a great tool for a simple project like this.

Circus also comes pre-packed in nixpkgs, so we don’t need to do anything to actually build it. We only need to configure it. To do this we’ll write a bash script which generates the configuration on-the-fly, and then runs the process with that configuration.

This script is going to act as the “frontend” for our eventual static binary; the user will pass in configuration parameters to this script, and this script will translate those into the appropriate configuration for all sub-process (markov, redis, circus). For this demo we won’t go nuts with the configuration, we’ll just expose the following:

  • MARKOV_LISTEN_ADDR: Address REST API will listen on (defaults to localhost:8000).

  • MARKOV_TIMEOUT: Expiration time of each link of the chain (defaults to 720 hours).

  • MARKOV_DATA_DIR: Directory where data will be stored (defaults to current working directory).

The bash script will take these params in as environment variables. The nix expression to generate the bash script, which we’ll call our entrypoint script, will look like this (assumes that the expression to generate bin/markov, defined above, is set to the markov variable):

pkgs.writeScriptBin "markov" ''

    # On every run we create new, temporary, configuration files for redis and
    # circus. To do this we create a new config directory.
    markovCfgDir=$(${pkgs.coreutils}/bin/mktemp -d)
    echo "generating configuration to $markovCfgDir"

    cat >$markovCfgDir/redis.conf <<EOF
    save ""
    dir "''${MARKOV_DATA_DIR:-$(pwd)}"
    appendonly yes
    appendfilename ""

    cat >$markovCfgDir/circus.ini <<EOF


    cmd = ${markov}/bin/markov \
        -listenAddr ''${MARKOV_LISTEN_ADDR:-localhost:8000} \
        -timeout ''${MARKOV_TIMEOUT:-720}
    numprocesses = 1

    cmd = ${pkgs.redis}/bin/redis-server $markovCfgDir/redis.conf
    numprocesses = 1

    exec ${pkgs.circus}/bin/circusd $markovCfgDir/circus.ini

By nix-building this expression we end up with a derivation with bin/markov, and running that should result in the following output:

generating configuration to markov.VLMPwqY
2021-04-22 09:27:56 circus[181906] [INFO] Starting master on pid 181906
2021-04-22 09:27:56 circus[181906] [INFO] Arbiter now waiting for commands
2021-04-22 09:27:56 circus[181906] [INFO] markov started
2021-04-22 09:27:56 circus[181906] [INFO] redis started
181923:C 22 Apr 2021 09:27:56.063 # oO0OoO0OoO0Oo Redis is starting oO0OoO0OoO0Oo
181923:C 22 Apr 2021 09:27:56.063 # Redis version=6.0.6, bits=64, commit=00000000, modified=0, pid=181923, just started
181923:C 22 Apr 2021 09:27:56.063 # Configuration loaded

The markov server process doesn’t have many logs, unfortunately, but redis’ logs at least work well, and doing a curl localhost:8000 results in the response from the markov server.

At this point our processes are composed using circus, let’s now bundle it all into a single static binary!

Step 3: nix-bundle

The next step is to run nix-bundle on the entrypoint expression, and nix-bundle will compile all dependencies (including markov, redis, and circus) into a single archive file, and make that file executable. When the archive is executed it will run our entrypoint script directly.

Getting nix-bundle is very easy, just use nix-shell!

nix-shell -p nix-bundle

This will open a shell where the nix-bundle binary is available on your path. From there just run the following to construct the binary (this assumes that the nix code described so far is stored in markov.nix, the full source of which will be linked to at the end of this post):

nix-bundle '((import ./markov.nix) {}).entrypoint' '/bin/markov'

The resulting binary is called markov, and is 89MB. The size is a bit jarring, considering the simplicity of the functionality, but it could probably be trimmed by using a different process manager than circus (which requires bundling an entire python runtime into the binary).

Running the binary directly as ./markov produces the same result as when we ran the entrypoint script earlier. Success! We have bundled multiple existing processes into a single, opaque, static binary. Installation of this binary is now as easy as copying it to any linux machine and running it.

Bonus Step: nix’ing nix-bundle

Installing and running nix-bundle manually is fine, but it’d be even better if that was defined as part of our nix setup as well. That way any new person wouldn’t have to worry about that step, and still get the same deterministic output from the build.

Unfortunately, we can’t actually run nix-bundle from within a nix build derivation, as it requires access to the nix store and that can’t be done (or at least I’m not on that level yet). So instead we’ll have to settle for defining the nix-bundle binary in nix and then using a Makefile to call it.

Defining a nix-bundle expression is easy enough:

    nixBundleSrc = pkgs.fetchFromGitHub {
        owner = "matthewbauer";
        repo = "nix-bundle";
        rev = "8e396533ef8f3e8a769037476824d668409b4a74";
        sha256 = "1lrq0990p07av42xz203w64abv2rz9xd8jrzxyvzzwj7vjj7qwyw";

    nixBundle = (import "${nixBundleSrc}/release.nix") {
        nixpkgs' = pkgs;

Then the Makefile:

	nix-build markov.nix -A nixBundle
	./result/bin/nix-bundle '((import ./markov.nix) {}).entrypoint' '/bin/markov'

Now all a developer needs to rebuild the project is to do make within the directory, while also having nix set up. The result will be a deterministically built, static binary, encompassing multiple processes which will all work together behind the scenes. This static binary can be copied to any linux machine and run there without any further installation steps.

How neat is that!

The final source files used for this project can be found below: